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Biology Practical For Class 12 based on NCERT and strictly according to latest syllabus prescribed by central board of secondary education New Delhi.
Class 12 Biology Experiment File Syllabus
The division of marks in practical examination would be as follows :
(Effective from Examination 2019)
Max. Marks : 30 Min. Marks : 10 Time : 03 hours
1. Evaluation by external examiner 15 marks
1. Preparation of slide 05 marks
2. Spot identification 06 marks
3. Sessional work, collection and Viva-voce (2 + 2) = 04 marks
2. Evaluation by internal examiner 15 marks
1. One major experiment (Experiment no. 5, 6, 8, 9) 05 marks
2. One minor experiment (Experiment no. 1, 2, 3, 4) 04 marks
3. Project work and Viva-voce (4 + 2) = 06 marks
Total 30 marks
Note Evaluation of the student will be done both by internal and external
examiners jointly. Practical file and project work should be submitted by
the student at the time of practical examination.
List of Experiments in Biology Practical Class 12
1. Study of pollen germination on a slide.
2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture,
moisture content, pH, water holding capacity and humus contents. Correlate
with the kinds of plants found in them.
3. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH,
clarity and presence of any living organisms.
4. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different
5. Study of plant population density by quadrat method.
6. Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method.
7. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
8. Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of
salivary amylase on starch.
9. Isolation of DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds,
Study/Observation of the following (Spotting)
1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
2. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
3. Identification of stages of gamete development i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary
through permanent slides (any mammal).
4. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
5. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (mammalian).
6. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
7. Study prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of
tongue, blood groups, widow’s peak and colour blindness.
8. Controlled pollination - emasculation, tagging and bagging.
9. Identification of Common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba,
Plasmodium, roundworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on
symptoms of disease that they cause.
10. Study of two plants and two animals found in xeric conditions. Comment upon
their morphological adaptations.
11. Study of two plants and two animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon
their morphological adaptations.
Note : Every student should have a biology practical note-book and record in it daily practical
work carried by him/her. Besides, the student should collect specimens and prepare a
chart/model and should submit during practical examination. Besides, teacher should
assign a project work which really interests you.
Project Work and Practical File (2 + 4) = 6 Marks
Project Work 4 Marks
The candidate is to creatively execute one project/assignment on an aspect of Biology.
Preference is to be given to investigatory projects. Teachers may assign or students may
choose any one project of their choice.
Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Project Work
Format of the Project :
• Presentation (graphs, tables, charts, newspaper cuttings, handmade diagrams,
photographs, statistical analysis if relevant)
• Projects should be handwritten by the candidate. Written pages should not exceed
Project File 2 Marks
The external Examiner is required to assess students on the basis of the Biology
Practical File maintained by them during the academic year.
Each practical done during the year, needs to be recorded by the student in the
Practical File and the same must be checked, signed and dated by the teacher.
BIOLOGY CLASS 12 PRACTICAL FILE PDF CONTENTS
Part-A : Core Experiments 1-66
1. Introduction to Laboratory 3-17
2. Field and Herbarium Techniques 18-21
3. Museum Specimens 22-24
4. The Microscope 25-32
5. Germination of Pollen Grains 33-34
6. Study of Soils 35-42
7. Study of Water Collected from Different Water Bodies 43-46
8. Study of Suspended Particulate Matter in Air 47-48
9. Study of Plant Population Density/Frequency by Quadrat Method 49-52
10. Study of Different Stages of Mitotic Division in Onion Root Tips 53-57
11. Study of the Effect of Temperature and pH on the Activity of Salivary Amylase
on Starch 58-61
12. Isolation of DNA from Available Plant Material 62-65
Part-B : Study/Observation for Spotting 67-120
1. Study of Flowers Adapted to Pollination by Different Agencies 69-75
2. Study of Pollen Germination on Stigma 76-77
3. Study of Stages of Gamete Development in Gonads 78-81
4. Study of Meiotic Division in Onion Floral Bud/Grasshopper Testis 82-88
5. Study of Mammalian Blastula 89-90
6. Study of Mendelian Inheritance 91-94
7. Study of Pedigree Charts of Genetic Traits 95-100
8. Study of Controlled Pollination 101-105
9. Common Disease Causing Organisms and their Symptoms 106-110
10. Study of Morphological Adaptations of Xeric Plants and Animals 111-115
11. Study of Morphological Adaptations of Aquatic Plants and Animals 116-120
Part-C : Investigative Experiments (Projects) 121-176
1. Project Work 123-125
2. Ecological Techniques for Measuring the Environment 126-130
3. Analysis of an Ecosystem 131-133
4. Yeast Fermentation and Production of Alcohol 134-137
5. Analysis of Food Adulterants and Evaluation of their Impact 138-141
6. Acid Rain : When the Sky Turns Sour 142-152
7. In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF, Test Tube Babies) 153-155
8. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) 156-160
9. Project Suggestions 161-176